Museums and Resource Efficiency

Museums and Resource Efficiency

Did you know that museums can be more energy intensive than hospitals? Luckily, there are opportunities to bring the world’s museum community together to work in the same direction toward climate goals.

Recognizing this, this past September the International Council of Museums (ICOM) unanimously adopted a resolution asserting that all museums have a role to play in shaping and creating a sustainable future.

Across the state of Texas, from El Paso to Houston and beyond, cities are planning and adopting resilience and climate strategies and are engaging stakeholders in the process. In Dallas, the new Kimbell Art Museum addition, designed by Renzo Piano, was completed in 2014.  The addition’s 19,200 green roof structure has layers of foam, engineered soil and sod for additional insulation.  Energy conservation is further enhanced by a roof photovoltaic system and geothermal system with tubes going almost 500 ft into the ground.  The museum’s design included replanting elms and other mature trees on site, while lawn depressions (swales) are part of the green stormwater infrastructure. 

Many of the strategies that make facilities more sustainable also make them more resilient and lower greenhouse gas emissions. As seen in the LEED project database, about 150 museums have earned LEED green building certification. Approximately 300 more have registered to go green. This is quite a feat for a complex building type.

Leaders Are Emerging

There is a growing number of LEED-certified museums around the world. This list includes projects in the United States, Canada, Greece, China, Korea, Brazil, Turkey, Palestine and the Philippines.

“By securing the third-party endorsement of LEED certification, we are showing the community our true commitment to the environment,” says JoAnn Newman, President and CEO of Orlando Science Center, which earned LEED Gold certification in 2010. “Operating a large building has a big impact on the environment, so it was a priority for us to reduce our energy and water usage. We want to be a conservation leader in our community, which is why we pursued LEED certification, not just once, but twice,” she says.

The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston campus, is undergoing a dramatic change with a 14-acre expansion. Located in a humid, subtropical climate, balancing the need to maintain precise temperature and humidity control necessary to protect the artwork while saving energy and reducing environmental impacts can be a challenge. Extremely efficient and reliable systems are contributing to a sustainable approach that is simultaneously conserving natural resources and artwork.  “The interactions between our buildings our ecosystem and our people are complex,” said City of Houston Chief Resilience Officer Marissa Aho, AICP. “We are committed to preparing for an increasingly uncertain future.”

On Twitter, @MuseumsforParis highlights museums’ accomplishments in sustainability, from enhancing their own building environment to upgrading their in-house education programs and exhibits.  

In North America, almost 150 museums have voluntarily put their energy consumption into Energy Star Portfolio Manager (ESPM), a platform that can generate a carbon footprint calculation. Energy benchmarking fulfills the pledge of those museums committed to We Are Still In while demonstrating they are “talking the talk and walking the walk.”

More than 300 other museums in the U.S. have reported annually on the ESPM platform as a result of the growing number of cities with benchmarking laws. The City of Austin, Orlando, and Atlanta have similarly enacted benchmarking legislations.

Unique to the Museum Environment

While ESPM is based in North America, where the majority of the 55,000 museums worldwide reside, Arc is becoming a global platform to track buildings interested in common metrics, whether it is measuring energy in KBtu/sq. ft. or GJ/m2. A universal carbon footprint is described in MTCo2e.  In addition to energy and water data that is easily exchanged between platforms, the carbon footprint associated with transportation and waste elimination is emerging as a pressing topic for public institutions such as museums.

Recognizing the critical balance between collection care and energy efficiency, the latest ASHRAE Chapter 24 on museums and associated facilities has issued new guidance this summer on humidity control with updated tables. This includes a larger temperature and humidity range tolerance that will help museums reduce their carbon footprints, while protecting valuable objects and archives.

Another important museum topic is indoor environmental quality. The ongoing schedules of changing exhibits in museums and their resulting paints, chemical compounds, and incoming exhibit materials constantly pose potential compromises on air quality. These significant museum functions would be best served by higher levels of air monitoring than are commonly in use. Not only would it enhance human health for the staff and visitors every day, air quality data gives the conservation department more opportunities to communicate with the facilities staff to ensure building envelope, lighting and HVAC maintenance will benefit the public, office and collection areas. 

Opportunities for Museums Today and Tomorrow

Centuries-old cultural institutions can last well into the future. Longevity in museums can translate to a higher cumulative carbon footprint, so, considering that museums have a very long service life, “Design, Build, Operate Green” seems to be more important now than ever before.  Benchmarking in existing museums and tracking performance is an imperative. In new construction, the greenest design strategies could be embraced: minimizing environmental impact while inspiring the community to think of the future as waste-, energy- and water-positive.

Joyce Lee, FAIA, LEED Fellow, is president of IndigoJLD providing green health, benchmarking, planning and design services on exemplary projects. Joyce served under Mayors Giuliani and Bloomberg as Chief Architect at the New York City OMB. Her work has received numerous professional awards. 

Marina Badoian-Kriticos is a research scientist at HARC, where her current work includes the development and implementation of clean energy, community resilience, and climate action policies and programs. Contact: [email protected]

Photo Caption: Kimbell Art Museum, South Façade, Renzo Piano Pavilion

Photo Credit: © Kimbell Art Museum, Photo by Nic LeHoux

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